PACIFIC ISLANDS APPLIED GEOSCIENCE COMMISSION
Map Cook Islands Federated Sates of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Nauru Niue Papua New Guinea Republic of Marshall Islands Republic of Palau Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu
Country
Population
Land Area
Climate
Water resource
Water consumption
Country Cook Islands Cook Islands
Population 21,750 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 236.7 km2
Climate
Water resource
Water consumption
Country Federated Sates of Micronesia Federated Sates of Micronesia
Population 107,862 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 702 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 4,928 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Fiji Fiji
Population 918 675 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 18,270 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 2000 - 3000 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Kiribati Kiribati
Population 107,817 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 811 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: South of the equator: 1,300 mm Tarawa: 2,000 mm Northernmost islands: over 3,200mm Eastern Line Islands: less than 1,000 mm
Water consumption
Country Nauru Nauru
Population 11,528 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 21 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 2,090 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Niue Niue
Population 1,625m(GoN statistics 2006)
Land Area 260 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 2,180 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea
Population 5,795,887 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 462,840 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall:1000-80000 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Republic of Marshall Islands Republic of Marshall Islands
Population 20,842
Land Area 458 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 3,700 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Republic of Palau Republic of Palau
Population 61,815(July 2007 est.)
Land Area 11,854.3 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: Southern attols: 4,000mm Northern attols:2,000 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Samoa Samoa
Population 214,265
Land Area 2,944 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 3,000 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
Population 566,842
Land Area 28,450 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall:1500-5000 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Tonga Tonga
Population 116,921
Land Area 748 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: Varies from north and south of tonga with an estimated average of 2500 mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Tuvalu Tuvalu
Population 11.992 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 26 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 3000mm per annum
Water consumption
Country Vanuatu Vanuatu
Population 211,971 (July 2007 est.)
Land Area 12,200 km2
Climate
Water resource Avg Rainfall: 2000 - 4000 mm per annum
Water consumption
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What is Water Demand Management?
A common characteristic of water demand in urban areas worldwide is its relentless rise over many years, and projections of continuous growth over coming decades. The chief influencing factors are population growth, together with changes in lifestyle, demographic structure and the possible effects of climate change. The detailed implications of climate change are not yet clear, and anyway will depend on global location, but must at least increase the uncertainty in security of supply. This is compounded by rapid development, creeping urbanisation and, in some places, rising standards of living.

Meeting this increasing demand from existing resources is self-evidently an uphill struggle, particularly in water stressed or water scarce regions, in the developed and developing world alike. There are typically two potential responses; either ‘supply-side’, meeting demand with new resources or ‘demand side’, managing consumptive demand itself to postpone or avoid the need to develop new resources. Worldwide there is considerable pressure from the general public, regulatory agencies, and some governments to minimise the impacts of new supply projects (e.g. building new reservoirs or inter-regional transfer schemes), implying the emphasis should be shifted towards managing water demand by best utilising the water that is already available.

The limited and costly options of developing new water resources for the Pacific urban areas has already made many governments adopt to the approach of water conservation. Water demand management involves the adoption of policies or investment by a water utility to achieve efficient water use by all members of the community. A demand management plan may involve a wide range of demand management measures including:

* cost-reflective pricing;
* universal customer metering;
* reticulation leakage detection and repair programs and pressure reduction;
* a communication strategy, including a community education campaign;
* customer advisory services, the use of incentives for installation and/or retrofitting of water efficient equipment;
* reduction of water use by the water utility;
* regulation of the efficiency of water using appliances, especially in new buildings;
* use of reclaimed water (e.g. waste water/grey water) to reduce the need for fresh water supplies;
* water use restrictions, either on a temporary pr permanent basis.

Demand management measures can be short or long term depending on the needs of the community served by the water utility. Measures which have a short lead-time are for instance restrictions, drought pricing and retrofitting programs. Others such as pricing structure reform, leakage detection and repair and regulation of the water efficiency of new buildings are longer-term measures.

Strategic planning is a key aspect of a successful demand management strategy. This means understanding the constraints, analyzing how much water is used, when, by whom, for what purpose and at what level of efficiency; determining the potential reduction in water use that can occur through improvements to water-using equipment and behavior and developing programs to achieve these improvements.

Economic evaluation of demand management measures is important to ensure that cost-effective measures are implemented. The sequence in which measures are implemented is also important. For instance it is not possible to establish a fair and efficient pricing system for water unless all customers are metered.

References: Butler, D. and Fayyaz M., Eds (2006): Water Demand Management. IWA Publishing, London. - & White, S., Ed., (1998): Wise Water Management: A Demand Management Manual for Water Utilities, (WSAA Research Report No. 86), Water Services Association of Australia.