Effective leakage management cannot be achieved without effective pressure management. Some countries - notably the United Kingdom and Japan - have been aware of the benefits of pressure management for many years. Reduction of excess pressure and surges (transients) not only reduces the flow rate of all existing leaks, but can also reduce (often dramatically) the number of new leaks and bursts occurring each year. This in turn influences the speed and quality of repairs (reducing average leak run times and repair backlogs) and the economic frequency of active leakage control. Reduction in new burst frequencies also extends infrastructure life, and will reduce annual infrastructure replacement costs for systems where the replacement policies are based on 'X' repairs on 'Y' km of mains in 'Z' years. The effects of pressure management on some elements of pressure-related consumption, and the effect on metered income, can also be predicted if required (Ref 1 & 2).
Ref 1: Thornton, J (2003): Managing Leakage by Managing Pressure. Water 21, October 2003.
Ref 2: Lambert, A. and Thornton, J. (2006): Managing Pressure to Reduce New Burst Frequencies and Improve Infrastructure Management.
Water 21, December 2006.